|Immigration to the United Kingdom, Immigration to the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since 1922, has
been substantial, in particular from Ireland and the former colonies
of the British Empire - such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the
Caribbean, South Africa, Kenya and Hong Kong - under British
nationality law. Others have come as asylum seekers, seeking
protection as refugees under the United Nations 1951 Refugee
Convention, or from European Union (EU) member states, exercising
one of the EUs Four Freedoms. |
About half the population
increase between the 1991 and 2001 censuses was due to foreign-born
immigration. 4.9 million People (8.3 percent of the population at
the time) were born abroad, although the census gives no indication
of their immigration status or intended length of stay.
2006, there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32
percent fewer than in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship
during 2006 was 154,095, 5 per cent fewer than in 2005. The largest
groups of people granted British citizenship were from India,
Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines. In 2006, 134,430 people were
granted settlement in the UK, a drop of 25 per cent on
2005.Meanwhile, migration from Central and Eastern Europe has
increased since 2004 with the accession to the European Union of
eight Central and Eastern European states, since there is free
movement of labour within the EU. The UK government is currently
phasing in a new points-based immigration system for people from
outside of the European Economic Area.
Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could
enter and stay in the United Kingdom without any restriction. The
Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 made Citizens of the United Kingdom
and Colonies (CUKCs) whose passports were not directly issued by the
United Kingdom Government (i.e. passports issued by the Governor of
a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate) subject to
Indians began arriving in the UK in
large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in
1947. More than 60,000 arrived before 1955, many of whom drove
buses, or worked in foundries or textile factories. Later arrivals
opened corner shops or ran post offices. The flow of Indian
immigrants peaked between 1965 and 1972, boosted in particular by
Idi Amins sudden decision to expel all 50,000 Gujarati Indians from
Uganda. Around 30,000 Ugandan Asians migrated to the UK.
1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or
grandparents born in the UK could gain entry - effectively stemming
primary immigration from Commonwealth countries.
the end of World War II, substantial groups of people from
Soviet-controlled territories settled in Britain, particularly Poles
and Ukrainians. The UK recruited displaced people as so-called
European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to industries
that were required in order to aim economic recovery after the war.
In the 1951 census, the Polish-born population of the UK numbered
some 162,339, up from 44,642 in 1931.
There was also an
influx of refugees from Hungary, following the crushing of the 1956
Hungarian revolution, numbering 20,990.
Nationality Act 1981, which was enacted in 1983, distinguishes
between British citizen or British Overseas Territories citizen. The
former hold nationality by descent and the latter hold nationality
other than by descent. Citizens by descent cannot automatically pass
on British nationality to a child born outside the United Kingdom or
it’s Overseas Territories (though in some situations the child can
be registered as a citizen).
Immigration officers have to be
satisfied about a persons nationality and identity and entry could
be refused if they were not satisfied.